There are 44 rivers in Kerala, all but three originating in the Western Ghats. 41 of them flow westward and 3 eastward. The rivers of Kerala are small, in terms of length, breadth and water discharge. The rivers flow faster, owing to the hilly terrain and as the short distance between the Western Ghats and the sea. All the rivers are entirely monsoon-fed and many of them shrink into rivulets or dry up completely during summer.
The following is a list of the westward-flowing rivers of Kerala state in southern India, in order of length, and their tributaries. These rivers all originate in the Western Ghats range and flow westward into the Kerala Backwaters or into the Arabian Sea. Length in kilometers is in parentheses.
Periyar (meaning: big river) is a river that flows in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, India. It is one of the few perennial rivers in the region and provides drinking water for several major towns. The river is mostly located in Kerala and generates a significant proportion of that state's electrical power via the Idukki Dam. Due to these reasons, the river has been named the 'Lifeline of Kerala'. It is the longest river and the river with the largest discharge potential in Kerala.
Its major tributaries are: Muthirapuzha River, Mullayar River, Cheruthoni River, Perinjankutti River, Edamala River.
Minor tributaries are: Muthayar, Perunthuraiar, Chinnar, Cheruthony, Kattappanayar
Bharathappuzha ("River of Bharata"), also known as the River Nila, is a river in India in the state of Kerala. With a length of 209 km, it is the second-longest river in Kerala, after the Periyar River. The word "Nila" indicates the culture more than just a river. Nila has groomed the culture and life of south Malabar part of Kerala. We see the name "Peraar" indicating the same river in ancient scripts and documents.
Its major tributaries are: Thuthapuzha River, Gayathripuzha River, Kalpathipuzha River, Kannadipuzha River
The Pamba River (also called Pampa ) is the third longest river in Kerala after Periyar and Bharathappuzha and the longest river in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore. Sabarimala temple dedicated to Lord Ayyappa is located on the banks of the river Pamba.
The Pamba is considered as the Dakshina Ganga (Southern Ganges) due to its association with Kerala's Largest Pilgrim Centre - Sabarimala.
The River Pamba enriches the lands of Pathanamthitta District and the Kuttanand area of Alappuzha District
Its major tributaries are: Azhuthayar, Kakkiyar, Kakkattar, Kallar, Perunthenaruvi, Madatharuvi, Thanungattilthodu, Kozhithodu, Varattar, Kuttemperoor
Chaliyar is the fourth longest river in Kerala at 169 km in length. The Chaliyar is also known as Beypore River as it nears the sea. Nilambur, Edavanna, Areekode, Kizhuparamba, Cheruvadi, Mavoor, Peruvayal, Feroke and Beypore are some of the towns/villages situated along the banks of Chaliyar.
Chalakudy River or Chalakudy Puzha is the fourth longest river in Kerala, India. The river flows through Palakkad district, Thrissur District and Ernakulam District of Kerala. The total drainage area of the river is 1704 km2. out of this 1404 km² lies in Kerala and the rest 300 km2 in Tamil Nadu. The length of the river is 145.5 km. Though Chalakudy river in strict geological sense is a tributary of the Periyar river, for all practical purposes it is treated as a separate river by Government and other agencies.
Its major tributaries is: Parambikulam River
Kadalundi River (Kadalundipuzha) is one of the four most important rivers flowing through Malappuram district in Kerala. The other three are the Chaliyar, the Bharathappuzha and the Tirur River. This rain-fed river is 110 kilometres (68 mi) long and is one of the most important rivers in the district. It is formed by the confluence of the Olipuzha River and the Veliyar River.
The Achankovil Aar is a river in Kerala, formed towards the southern tip of the peninsula from the streams of the Rishimala River, Pasukidamettu River, and the Ramakkalteri River. This river enriches the Pathanamthitta district of Kerala state. It joins with the Pamba River at Veeyapuram, in the Alappuzha district of Kerala in South India. Achankovil is also the name of the forest area, which is the catchment area for this river, and of a small town situated in the Achenkovil forest area. The Achankovil village is not easily accessible; however, it can be reached through forest routes.
The Kallada River is one of two major rivers that flow through the Kollam District of Kerala, India. It originates on the Kulathupuzha hills near Ponmudi and travels for 121 km, flowing through Punalur, Pathanapuram, Kunnathur and Kallada before ending at Ashtamudi Lake. The Palaruvi Falls also feeds Kallada river.
Muvattupuzha river which starts and flows through Muvattupuzha town runs for 121 km and enters Kottayam district as well. The major source of water is the Thodupuzha river which starts in the Idukki district and provides water throughout the year, enabled by the supply of water from Idukki arch dam. The town Muvattupuzha is named after the Muvattupuzha river (Muvattupuzha Aaru) which flows through it.
Valapattanam River is the largest river in the Kannur district, located in the South Indian state of Kerala. Valapattam town is located on its bank. The famous Muthappan temple is also on the bank of the river. Kannur District Tourism Council has launched a `Nadi Darshan' (river viewing) programme in association with a private resort at Kattampalli as much as an initiative to popularise the kettuvallam for tourism promotion as also an effort to make people know more about Valapattanam River.
Chandragiri is a river in Kasaragod district of Kerala state, also known by the name Payaswini (Paachini in Tulu and local Malayalam). On the banks of this river is 17th century Chandragiri fort. This river is considered as the traditional boundary between Tulu Nadu and Malayalam regions of Kerala.The river originates in a village called Koinadu of Kodagu district in Karnataka state. It flows in a north-westerly direction through Sullia taluk of Dakshina Kannada district. In Sullia taluk, it is the major water source for domestic and agricultural purposes. It then flows west to Kasaragod district of Kerala state to join the Arabian sea.
Manimala River has its origin on the Muthavara Hills (2500 feet above main sea level) on the Western Ghats, in Idukki district of Kerala. The river passes through the districts of Kottayam, Pathanamthitta and finally joins the Pamba River at Muttar near Tiruvalla in Alappuzha district. Yendayaar, Koottikkal, Mundakayam, Erumeli, Manimala, Vaipur, Mallappally, Thuruthicad, Vennikkulam, Kaviyoor, Kallooppara, Niranam, Muttar, Thalavadi, Kozhimukku and Champakkulam lie on the banks of Manimala River. Its running length is estimated at 92 km. It empties itself into the Vembanad Lake.
Vamanapuram River is an 88-km long river in southern Kerala. The river originates in the Chemunjimotta hills (alt. 1860m) hills on the southern side of the Western Ghats, and flows through Thiruvananthapuram and Kollam districts of Kerala.It ends in AnjengoLake(Anchuthengu Lake) near Varkala. The two tributaries of this river are the Upper Chittar & Manjaprayar streams.
Kuppam is a river located at Taliparamba in Kannur District of Kerala state, India. The river flows into the Arabian Sea. The river touches Taliparamba town at a place called Kuppam which is surrounded by seven small hills. This is a Muslim populated area.
The Meenachil river flows through the heart of Kottayam district of Kerala state, India. The river, 78 km long, flows through Poonjar, Teekoy, Erattupetta, Palai, Ettumanoor and Kottayam before emptying itself into the Vembanad Lake at Kumarakom, the famous tourist place of Kerala.
The Kuttiadi River rising from the Narikota Ranges on the western slopes of the Wynad Hills a part of Western Ghats at an elevation of 1220 m M.S.L of the kuttiyadi River flows through Badagara, Quilandy and Kozhikode Taluks. The river is also known as the Murat River. This river has a length of 74 km. It falls into the Arabin Sea at Kottakal 7 km and along with its tributaries it drains in area of 583 km2.
The major tributaries of the river are the Onipuzha, the Thottilpalampuzha the Kadiyangad puzha thevannathilpuzha and the Madappallipuzha. The river passes through Oorakuzhi Kuttiadi. Traveler, Muyipot, Maniyur and Karuvacheri. The historical Kottakkal Forest is situated at the mouth of the river.
Karamana is a river flowing through the city of Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala, India. The river starts near the southern tip of the Western Ghats at Agastyar Koodam. The river flows 68 km westward and merges with the Arabian Sea at Panathura near Kovalam. The river gets its name from Karamana, a suburb of Thiruvananthapuram city, through which it flows.
Shriya river in 61 km in length. Shriya river flows through Badoor village at Kozhikode and Kumbla, is a small town located 11 km north of Kasaragod town, in Kasaragod District, Kerala.Kumbla located at the mouth of a lagoon formed by the Shiriya river.
Kariangode River is a river in Kasaragod district of Kerala state, south India. It is running through the hills and dales of Hosdurg Taluk. Immorlised as Tejaswini by great novelist Niranjana laps on its shore. The famous village of Kayyur - the cradle of agrarian revolutions where the farmers and farm workers staged a historic battle against feudalism and the British imperialism.
Ithikkara River is a 56 km long river in Kerala, India. It originates in Kulathhoopuzha hills in the western ghats flows through Kollam District, finally emptying into Paravur Kayal.
The village of Ithikkara is located on the river, 15 km from Kollam and 2 km from Chathannoor.
The Neyyar River is a river of south-western India in the Western Ghats. It flows from the Agastya Mala (also known as Agastyarkoodam) hills in of Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala state.
The river passes through Neyyattinkara taluk into the Arabian Sea near Poovar. It has a total length of 56 km. Tributaries include the Kallar (river), Mullayar River, and the Karavaliyar River. It has several small canals along the river and the Neyyar Irrigation Project, "Neyyar Dam", is situated in this river. A safari park is located near the river.
Mahe River (also known as Mayyazhipuzha), is flows through the state of Kerala and the coastal exclave of Mahe in Puducherry. The river originates in the hills of Wayanad in the Western Ghats, and traverses a total length of 54 km (33.5 mi) before culminating in the Arabian Sea at Mahe. The northern boundary of Mahe Town is defined by the river.
The Keecheri River or Keecheri Puzha is a west flowing river which has its origins at Machad hills in Thrissur District. The river is 51 kilometres in length and empties to Arabian Sea at Chettuva Lake. It is linked with backwaters at Enamaakkal. Choondal Thodu is the only tributary of this river.
Perumba River is a major freshwater river in Malabar region of Kerala, which passes through industrial city of Payyannur, Kannur district. One of the major theaters in Payyanur, "Shanthi", is situated on the banks of this river at Perumba Town, Payyanur.
Uppala river is in Kasargod District of Kerala and is 15 km south of Manjeshwar and its close to the Arabian Sea, The length of the river is about 50 km. Originating 150 m height from the sea level, the river passes through Kasargod District in Kerala, and merges in the Arabian Sea.Uppala River, also known as Kalai River, originates from the Veerakamba Hills in Karnataka. Manjeswar river joins from the north eastern side and Uppala river (broader river) joins from the south eastern side.
The Karuvannur River or Karuvannur Puzha has its origins at Pumalai Hills in Chimmony Wildlife sanctuary of Thrissur District. The Karuvannur River is formed by the confluence of two rivers, Manali River and Kurumali River. The river flows west and splits in two, one falling in Enamakkal Lake in Thrissur District and the other one into Periyar river. The river is 48 kilometres in length, drains an area of 1,054 sqkm and gives drinking water to many Panchayats in Thrissur District.
The river Anjarakandy is flowing through the Anjarakandy in Kannur district. It is 48 kms long.
Tirur River begins in the Tirur taluk village of Athvanad in the Malappuram district of the state of Kerala and flows south-west to Thiruvnavaya and then north-west to Elamkulam where it turns south-west, joining the Bharathapuzha River which flows into the Arabian Sea near the coastal town of Ponnani. It is known for its beautiful mangroves and its many varieties of fishes and birds.
This river is navigable and forms part of west coast water transport system.
Nileswaram River rose from the Hosdurg taluk of Kasargod District and flows 46 km all the way through Nileswaram and finally joins with the Tejaswini river or Kariyankode River at Kottapuram. Nileshwaram lies between these two rivers of Nileshwaram and Karyangodu and finally reches to the west in the arabian sea.
Pallikkal river flowing for 42 km and ends in the Kallada river. Many people depend this river for irrigation and fishing. Mynagappally is a beautiful village with paddy fields in Kunnathoor taluk of Kollam district. Its western border is separated by Pallikkal River from Thodiyoor panchayath. A part of pallikkal river starts here.
Kallayi Puzha originates in Cherikkulathur in the Western Ghats at an altitude of 45 m and is 40 km long. It is linked to the Chaliyar River by a man-made canal on the south side of the small timber village of Kallayi lying on its banks. The Kallayi was known for its timber businesses, but now many of these have been closed down.
Korapuzha also known as Elathur River is a short river of 40 km (25 mi), with a drainage area of 624 km2 (241 sq mi), flowing through the Kozhikode district of Kerala. It is formed by the confluence of two streams, Agalapuzha and Punnoorpuzha which originate in the mountains of Wayanad district. The Korapuzha empties into the Arabian Sea at Elathur. The river and its main tributaries become tidal as they near the Arabian Sea. There is heavy boat traffic over the last 25 km (16 mi) of its course.
The Mogral River is a west-flowing river in the Kasaragod district in Kerala. It gets its name from Mogral, a coastal village on its northern banks. The river empties into the Arabian Sea in Mogral Puthur. It has a length of 34 kilometers and a drainage area of 132 square kilometers.
The river originates in Kanathur in the Karadka Reserve Forest, in Kasaragod. After flowing in a north-westerly direction through Bettipadi and Muliyar, it is joined by another stream rising from the northern part of Karadka Reserve Forest.
The Kaveripuzha is a west-flowing river in Kerala, which is 31 km long.
The Pannagam thodu, about 30 kilometer long which start from 14th mile of KK road region and flows through Madapattu, Mattakkara, Arumanoor, Ayarkunnam regions and joins the Meenachil near Punnathara, Kidangoor. The name Pannagam means snake, as the river’s route of flow is look like a snake curled because it surrounding many hills.
The pannagam thodu is formed by several streams originating from the small hills in the Pampady, Pallickathode, Kooropada Panchayat and rich with water during the flow through Akalakunnam, Arumanoor and Ayarkunnam Panchayat.
Thanikkudam river is a small river flows 29 kms originates from the slopes of Vazhani ranges and Chenkalli and is oriented in a north-east to South-west direction.In Trissur district which divides the Thanikkudam village into two areas. Thanikkudam Bhagavathi Temple is believed to be most powerful Devi Vana durga known as "Thanikkudathamma presiding here. Aaaraattu is held once in a year here. Usually the idol of the main deity is taken to a nearby pond on special occasions for a holy dip is called "Aarattu" in Kerala but here the day water completely submerge the idol within, it is considered the day for Aarattu.
Manam river is a small river flows 29 kms in Kerala.
Thalassery or Ponnayam River originates and flows 28 km from the western cliffs of Kunnoth forest and finally joins the Arabian Sea.It is also called Kuyali Puzha.It has one tributary and is Muriya. Thalassery is at the bank of this river and Kunduchira dam is at Moozhikkara. The geography of Thalassery is adorned with four rivers, seven hills and a long coast line.
Chittary River is a small river flows 25 kms in Kerala.
Ramapuram river is the smallest stream in Kannur district having 19 Kms length and originates from Iringal. The river flows through the villages of Pariyaram, Cherthazhm and Madayi. Madayipara is a flat topped hillock located in the Madayi, It is overlooking Payangadi town on the northern bank of Kuppam river.The Madayipara is well known for its rich diversity of plants. The aquatic and semi-aquatic plants form extensive carpets of blue, pink, white and yellow during the monsoon season. It is typical of the Laterite foot hills of the Western Ghats.
Ayiroor River is a small river flows 17 kms in Trivandrum district in Kerala.
Bangra Manjeswara River River
Bangra Manjeswara River is a small river of Kerala, which flows 16 kms long in Kasargod District.
There are three rivers rise in Kerala and flow eastwards, Kabini into Karnataka and the other two into Tamil Nadu.
The Kabini, also called Kabani and Kapila, is a river of southern India. It originates in the Wayanad District of Kerala state from the confluence of the Panamaram River and the Mananthavady River, and flows eastward to join the Kaveri River at Tirumakudalu Narasipura in Karnataka, which empties into the Bay of Bengal.
Close to the town of Sargur it forms the huge Kabini Reservoir. The backwaters of the Kabini reservoir are very rich in wildlife especially in summer when the water level recedes to form rich grassy meadows.
The Bhavani is a 217 km. long perennial river fed mostly by the southwest monsoon and supplemented by the northeast monsoon.
The main river courses through entire of the North-Western Erode district of Tamil Nadu. About 90 per cent of the river's water is used for agriculture irrigation. 6 million people live along its banks. Textile, leather, sugar, paper, slaughterhouse and distilling industries are located along the river and its tributaries at many points.
The Pambar River originates in the Anaimudi Hills in Idukki District of Kerala. It traverses Turner's Valley in Eravikulam National Park and flows into the Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary through the Taliar Valley between Kanthalloor and Marayoor Villages and eastwards through the sanctuary. It is joined by seasonal rivulets and a few perennial streams originating from sholas in the upper reaches.
The Pambar merges with the Chinnar River at Koottar where a comfortable tree house accommodation is available. The Chinnar follows the interstate boundary along the northwest edge of the sanctuary and becomes the Amaravati River in Tamil Nadu, reaches the Amaravathi Reservoir and Dam and eventually joins the Kaveri River near Karur.